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Tips and Tricks




Written and verbal communication often includes these abbreviations:

  • R.S.V.P. – This acronym means “Répondez s’il vous plait,” French for “respond, if you please.” It is often used on invitations to parties and special events, and is intended (as it says) to be responded to with a “yes, we will attend,” or “no, we will not.”
  • P.S. – Means “post script.” At the end of a letter, people will often include a P.S. to include an extra thought that was intended to be included in the letter, but forgotten. Using a P.S. was more common in typewritten letters, when you couldn’t go back and add a sentence in the body of a letter.
  • A.S.A.P. – “As soon as possible,” used when encouraging someone to respond to a request without delay.
  • E.T.A. – This acronym means “estimated time of arrival,” and is used as a guess for when one expects to arrive while traveling.
  • B.Y.O.B. – “Bring your own bottle” is used for parties where guests are expected to bring their own beverages.
  • D.I.Y. – This acronym stands for “do it yourself,” which means creating something on your own.  It is often used for crafts and home repairs.


Perhaps the most commonly used abbreviations used in the U.S. are found in the names of the 50 states:

  • Alabama – AL
  • Alaska – AK
  • Arizona – AZ
  • Arkansas – AR
  • California – CA
  • Colorado – CO
  • Connecticut – CT
  • Delaware – DE
  • Florida – FL
  • Georgia – GA
  • Hawaii – HI
  • Idaho – ID
  • Illinois – IL
  • Indiana – IN
  • Iowa – IA
  • Kansas – KS
  • Kentucky – KY
  • Louisiana – LA
  • Maine – ME
  • Maryland – MD
  • Massachusetts – MA
  • Michigan – MI
  • Minnesota – MN
  • Mississippi – MS
  • Missouri – MO
  • Montana – MT
  • Nebraska – NE
  • Nevada – NV
  • New Hampshire – NH
  • New Jersey – NJ
  • New Mexico – NM
  • New York – NY
  • North Carolina – NC
  • North Dakota – ND
  • Ohio – OH
  • Oklahoma – OK
  • Oregon – OR
  • Pennsylvania – PA
  • Rhode Island – RI
  • South Carolina – SC
  • South Dakota – SD
  • Tennessee – TN
  • Texas – TX
  • Utah -UT
  • Vermont – VT
  • Virginia – VA
  • Washington – WA
  • West Virginia – WV
  • Wisconsin – WI
  • Wyoming – WY


Abbreviations are also necessary for measurements for cooking and baking – after all, your cake won’t come out very well if you don’t know the difference between:

  • tsp or t – teaspoon/teaspoons
  • tbs, tbsp or T – tablespoon/tablespoons
  • c – cup/cups
  • gal – gallon
  • lb – pound/pounds
  • pt – pint
  • qt – quart


If you want to find your way around, you better know location abbreviations such as:

  • Ave – avenue
  • Blvd – boulevard
  • Ln – lane
  • Rd – road
  • St – street


Abbreviations often show up in describing educational degrees and job titles. For example:

  • BA – Bachelor of Arts
  • BS – Bachelor of Science
  • MA – Master of Arts
  • M.PHIL or MPHIL – Master of Philosophy
  • JD – Juris Doctor
  • DC – Doctor of Chiropractic
  • PA – Personal Assistant
  • MD – Managing Director
  • VP – Vice President
  • SVP – Senior Vice President
  • EVP – Executive Vice President
  • CMO – Chief Marketing Officer
  • CFO – Chief Financial Officer
  • CEO – Chief Executive Officer


The advent of the Internet has brought about a whole new range of abbreviations we may use in our daily life. Among these abbreviations, online chat has evolved and created a language of its own, made up almost entirely of abbreviations. For example:

  • ACE  – a cool experience
  • AD – awesome dude
  • AFAIK – as far as I know
  • AFK – away from keyboard
  • ANI – age not important
  • BRB – be right back
  • CUL – see you later
  • CWYL – chat with you later
  • IIRC – if I recall/remember correctly
  • IQ – ignorance quotient
  • LOL – laugh-out-loud
  • NP – no problem
  • ROFL – rolling on the floor laughing
  • TY – thank you
  • WC – wrong conversation

These are just a handful of innumerable abbreviations that are used in chat language.


During the Great Depression, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt created a number of agencies to stimulate job growth in the United States. Known as “alphabet agencies,” these are some of the most famous abbreviations today.

  • AAA – The Agricultural Adjustment Act. This act was created in 1933 to compensate farmers for not planting crops as a way to increase the demand for certain agricultural products and raise prices. By 1936, the Supreme Court ruled that the act was to be voided.
  • CCC – The Civilian Conservation Corps. Single men between the ages of 18 and 25 were selected to form this corps, which would work on conserving the wildlife and national preservation areas, in addition to planting trees and fighting erosion.
  • CWA – The Civil Works Administration. Four million people were employed by the CWA to work in renovation and construction jobs such as building repair, road building, and other infrastructural work. However, some of the jobs provided by the CWA were considered useless, such as employing people to rake leaves.
  • FDIC – The Federal Deposit Insurance Corp. Since banks were widely distrusted after the many bank failures during the depression, this alphabet agency was created to encourage public confidence in saving money in banks by insuring customers against losses of up to $5,000 if the bank would happen to fail.
  • FHA – The Federal Housing Administration. This organization was created to help people secure loans to buy houses.
  • NRA – The National Recovery Administration. In 1933, Roosevelt helped create the NRA was an attempt to aid deflation and encourage market competition, in order to restore the economy. Unfortunately, the administration did not stimulate industrial production, although investor and consumer confidence were restored.
  • SSA – The Social Security Administration. The Social Security Act, administered by the Social Security Administration, created a national pension for retired people as well as unemployment insurance and government aid for single mothers, children, and handicapped persons. The SSA exists even today.


Looking at Latin, the root of the English language, is a good way to decipher abbreviations. The most popular abbreviations that we use in our day to day life are derived from this ancient language. For example:

  • AM, which we use to denote morning, is an abbreviation for ante meridian, and PM stands for post meridian.
  • The era in which we live, AD, is actually an abbreviation for Anno Domini, or “The Year of Our Lord.”

Latin has also gifted us with other abbreviations that we use so frequently that at times, we seem to forget what they stand for such as:

  • When someone quotes an example and uses the abbreviation e.g. to express it, it stands for exampli gratia, which means, “example given.”
  • Also, i.e., another equally popular abbreviation we use in daily life, stands for id est, meaning, “that is.”
  • “Etc”, which is used also used often, is short for etcetera, which means “and other things.”
  • Another popular Latin abbreviation we use in our daily life is “viz”, which stands for videlicet, meaning “namely.”
  • Other popular Latin abbreviations include n.b which is written at the end of a communication. It stands for nota bene, which means “take notice,” or “note well.”

Abbreviations have become an inalienable part of our lives. In other words, almost anything you want to do will require you to know an abbreviation or two.



AICTE All India Council for Technical Education.
ALISE Association for Library and Information Science Education.
APA American Psychological Association.
B.A Bachelor of Arts.
B.A.E Bachelor of Arts in Education.
B.Ag Bachelor of Agriculture.
B.A.M Bachelor of Applied Mathematics.
B.Arch Bachelor of Architecture.
B.B.A Bachelor of Business Administration.
B.C.E Bachelor of Civil Engineering.
B.Ch.E Bachelor of Chemical Engineering.
BCI Bar Council of India.
B.C.L Bachelor of Canon Law.
B.D Bachelor of Divinity.
B.E Bachelor of Education or Bachelor of Engineering.
B.E.E Bachelor of Electrical Engineering.
B.F Bachelor of Forestry.
B.F.A Bachelor of Fine Arts.
B.J Bachelor of Journalism.
B.L.S Bachelor of Liberal Studies or Bachelor of Library Science.
B.Lit Bachelor of Literature.
B.Litt Bachelor of Letters.
B.M Bachelor of Medicine or Bachelor of Music.
B.M.S Bachelor of Marine Science.
BMS Bachelor of Management Studies.
B.N Bachelor of Nursing.
B.Pharm Bachelor of Pharmacy.
B.R.E Bachelor of Religious Education.
B.S Bachelor of Science.
B.S.Ed Bachelor of Science in Education.
B.Tech Bachelor of Technology.
CBSE Central Board of Secondary Education.
CDC Curriculum Development Committee.
C.E Civil Engineer.
CEP Continuing Education Programme.
Ch.E Chemical Engineer.
CIET Central Institute of Educational Technology.
CLISc Certificate Course in Library and Information Science.
CLS Certificate in Library Science.
CSIR Council of Scientific and Industrial Research.
CV Curriculum Vitae.
D.A Doctor of Arts.
D.A.S Doctor of Applied Science.
D.B.A Doctor of Business Administration.
D.C Doctor of Chiropractic.
D.D Doctor of Divinity.
DEAF Depositors Education Awareness Fund.
D.D.S Doctor of Dental Surgery or Doctor of Dental Science.
D.Ed Doctor of Education.
DEC Distance Education Council.
DESIDOC Defense Scientific Information and Documentation Center.
D.LL Doctor of Laws.
DLSc Diploma in Library Science.
DLIS Department of Library and Information Science.
D.J Doctor of Laws.
D.J.S Doctor of Juristic Science.
D.L.H Doctor of Humane Letters.
D.L.S Doctor of Library Science.
D.M.D Doctor of Dental Medicine.
D.O Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine.
D.M.S Doctor of Medical Science.
D.P.A Doctor of Public Administration.
D.P.H Doctor of Public Health.
DRTC Documentation Research and Training Center.
D.R.E Doctor of Religious Education.
D.S.W Doctor of Social Welfare or Doctor of Social Work.
D.Sc Doctor of Science.
D.V.M Doctor of Veterinary Medicine.
Ed.D Doctor of Education.
Ed.S Education Specialist.
EDRS Education Document Retrieval Service.
E.E Electrical Engineer.
E.M Engineer of Mines.
E.Met Engineer of Metallurgy.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center.
ETS Educational Testing Service.
FERPA Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act.
GATE Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering.
GIAC Global Initiative for Academic Networks.
GMAT Graduate Management Admission Test.
GPA Grade Point Average.
GRE Graduate Record Examinations.
HSC Higher Secondary Certificate.
IASLIC Indian Association of Special Libraries and Information Centers.
IATLIS Indian Association of Teachers in Library and Information Science.
ICAC International Council of Adult Education.
ICSE Indian Certificate of Secondary Education.
ICSSR Indian Council of Social Science Research.
ICT Information and Communication Technology.
I.E Industrial Engineer or Industrial Engineering.
IES Institute of Educational Sciences.
IES Indian Engineering Services.
IFLA International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions.
IIT Indian Institute of Technology.
ILA Indian Library Association.
INSDOC Indian National Scientific Documentation Center.
IQ Intelligence Quotient.
ISC Indian School Certificate.
ISEET Indian Science Engineering Eligibility Test.
LA Learning Assistance.
LAC Learning Assistance Center.
LASS Learning Assistance Support System.
LASSI Learning & Study Strategies Inventory.
LCLC Learning Center Leadership Certification.
LEP Limited English Proficient.
LMS Learning Management System.
LSC Learning Support Center.
LSCHE Learning Support Centers in Higher Education.
LCSH Library of Congress Subject Heading.
LIS  Library and Information Science.
LKG Lower Kinder Garten.
LLB Bachelor of Laws.
M.LL Master of Laws.
M.A Master of Arts.
M.Aero.E Master of Aeronautical Engineering.
MAT Management Aptitude Test.
M.B.A Master of Business Administration.
MBBS Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery.
M.C.E Master of Christian Education or Master of Civil Engineering.
MCI Medical Council of India.
M.C.S Master of Computer Science.
M.D Doctor of Medicine.
M.Div Master of Divinity.
M.E Master of Engineering.
M.Ed Master of Education.
M.Eng Master of Engineering.
M.F.A Master of Fine Arts.
M.H.A Master of Hospital Administration.
MLA Modern Library Association.
MLISc Master of Library and Information Science.
M.L.S Master of Library Science.
M.Litt Master of Letters.
M.M Master of Music.
M.M.E Master of Mechanical Engineering or Master of Music Education.
M.Mus Master of Music.
M.N Master of Nursing.
M.Phil Master of Philosophy.
M.R.E Master of Religious Education.
M.S Master of Science.
M.S.W Master of Social Work.
M.Th Master of Theology.
NAAC National Assessment and Accreditation Council.
NADE National Association for Developmental Education.
NCERT National Council of Educational Research and Training.
NASSDOC National Social Science Documentation Center.
NCLCA National College Learning Center Association.
NCTE National Council of Teachers of English.
NCTM National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.
NISOD National Institute for Staff and Organizational Development.
NODA National Orientation Directors Association.
NCHER National Commission for Higher Education and Research.
NCTE National Council for Teachers Education.
NEET National Eligibility
NIIT National Institute of Information Technology.
NISCAIR National Institute for Science Communication and Information Resources.
NMAT Narsee Monjee Management Aptitude Test.
NRC National Reading Conference.
Nuc.E Nuclear Engineer.
O.D Doctor of Optometry.
Pharm.D Doctor of Pharmacy.
Ph.B Bachelor of Philosophy.
Ph.D Doctor of Philosophy.
PGDIT  Post Graduate Diploma in Information Technology.
PGDLAN Post Graduate Diploma in Library Automation and Networking.
Ph.D Doctorate in Philosophy.
RIE Regional Institute of Education.
RRRLF Raja Rammohun Roy Library Foundation.
S.B Bachelor of Science.
Sc.D Doctor of Science.
S.J.D Doctor of Juridical Science or Doctor of the Science of Law.
S.Sc.D Doctor of Social Science.
SSLC Secondary School Leaving Certificate.
S.T.B Bachelor of Sacred Theology.
S.T.D Doctor of Sacred Theology.
S.T.M Master of Sacred Theology.
Th.B Bachelor of Theology.
Th.D Doctor of Theology.
Th.M Master of Theology.
TGT Trained Graduate Teacher.
TOEFL Test Of English as a Foreign Language.
UGC University Grants Commission.
Degree Abbreviations
Associate of Arts AA or A.A.
Brevet d’études professionnelles (France) BEP
Certificat d’aptitude professionnelle (France) CAP
Diploma of Arts Dip.Arts
Diploma of Language Studies Dip.Lang.Stud.
Diploma of Languages Dip.Lang
Diploma of Social Sciences Dip.Soc.Sc.
Diploma of Education Dip.Ed
Diploma of Music Dip.Mus.


Degree Abbreviations
Bachelor of Arts BA, B.A., AB, A.B. or B.Arts
Bachelor of Accountancy BAcy or B.Acy.
Bachelor of Accounting BAcc or B.Acc.
Bachelor of Animal and Veterinary Bioscience B.An.Vet.Bio.Sc.
Bachelor of Applied Science B.App.Sc.
Bachelor of Architecture BArch or B.Arch.
Bachelor of Business Administration BBA or B.B.A.
Bachelor of Civil Engineering BCE or B.C.E.
Bachelor of Commerce BComm or B.Comm., or BCom or B.Com.
Bachelor of Communications B.Comm.
Bachelor of Dental Medicine BDM or B.D.M.
Bachelor of Dental Science BDSc or B.D.Sc.
Bachelor of Dental Surgery BDS or B.D.S.; or BChD or B.Ch.D.
Bachelor of Dentistry BDent or B.Dent.
Bachelor of Design BDes or B.Des.
Bachelor of Design Computing B.Des.Comp.
Bachelor of Design in Architecture B.Des.Arch.
Bachelor of Education BEd or B.Ed.
Bachelor of Engineering BEng or B.Eng., or BE or B.E
Bachelor of Electronic Commerce BEC or B.E-COM.
Bachelor of Electrical Engineering BEE or B.E.E.
Bachelor of Fine Arts BFA or B.F.A.
Bachelor of Health Sciences B.Hlth.Sci
Bachelor of Information Technology BIT or B.I.T.
Bachelor of International and Global Studies BIGS or B.I.G.S.
Bachelor of Law LLB or LL.B.
Bachelor of Liberal Arts and Sciences BLAS or B.L.A.S.
Bachelor of Library Science BLib or B.Lib., or BLS or B.L.S.
Bachelor of Literature BLit or B.Lit.
Bachelor of Mathematics BMath or B.Math
Bachelor of Mechanical Engineering BME or B.M.E.
Bachelor of Medical Science B.Med.Sc.
Bachelor of Medicine MB or M.B.
Bachelor of Music Studies B.Mus.Studies
Bachelor of Nursing BN or B.N.
Bachelor of Pharmacy B.Pharm.
Bachelor of Political, Economic and Social Sciences B.P.E.S.S.
Bachelor of Resource Economics B.Res.Ec.
Bachelor of Science (US) BS or B.S.; (UK) BSc or B.Sc.
Bachelor of Science in Nursing BSN
Bachelor of Socio-Legal Studies BSLS or B.S.L.S.
Bachelor of Surgery BS or B.S.
Bachelor of Veterinary Science B.V.Sc.
Bachelor of Visual Arts BVA or B.V.A.




Degrees conferred for coursework/research after having attained a bachelor’s degree.

Degree Abbreviations
Master of Arts MA, M.A. or A.M.
Master of Business Administration MBA or M.B.A.
Master of Commerce MCom or M.Com
Master of Divinity MDiv or M.Div.
Master of Education M.Ed.
Master of International Studies MIS or M.I.S.
Master of Laws LLM or LL.M.
Master of Library Science MLS
Master of Liberal Arts MLA
Master of Science (US) MS or M.S.; (UK) MSc or M.Sc.
Master of Social Work MSW or M.S.W.
Master of Strategic Foresight MSF or M.S.F.


Generally awarded with a research project and thesis.

Degree Abbreviations
Doctor of Audiology AuD or Au.D.
Doctor of Chiropractic DC or D.C.
Doctor of Dental Surgery DDS or D.D.S.
Doctor of Divinity DD or D.D.
Doctor of Education EdD or Ed.D.
Doctor of Jurisprudence (Juris Doctor) JD or J.D.
Doctor of Medical Dentistry DMD or D.M.D.
Doctor of Medicine MD or M.D.
Doctor of Naturopathy ND or N.D.
Doctor of Nursing Practice DNP or D.N.P.
Doctor of Optometry OD or O.D.
Doctor of Osteopathy DO or D.O.
Doctor of Pharmacy PharmD or Pharm.D.
Doctor of Philosophy PhD, Ph.D., DPhil, D.Phil., DPh or D.Ph.
Doctor of Physical Therapy DPT or D.P.T.
Doctor of Psychology PsyD or Psy.D.
Doctor of Science DSc or D.Sc.
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine DVM or D.V.M.

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